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Addresses AP® Chemistry Big Idea 6 and Learning Objective 6.20. Students evaluate a buffer solution’s buffering capacity and compare the titration curves of a buffer solution and a weak acid. This comparative laboratory exercise can be taught using either a guided or an inquiry activity. For 30 students in groups of 3.
Students evaluate a buffer solution’s buffering capacity and compare the titration curves of a buffer solution and a weak acid. This comparative laboratory exercise can be taught using either a guided or an inquiry activity. In the guided activity, students measure the pH of a citric acid solution titrated with a strong base and plot the titration curve. Students repeat the procedure with a solution prepared from a commercial lemonade mix, which behaves as a buffer and whose primary ingredient is citric acid. Students compare the 2 titration curves, make observations, and address the differences in the curves.
The inquiry activity allows students to design a procedure to evaluate a commercial lemonade mix’s buffering capacity. It also provides an opportunity for students to present their experimental design and results, reinforcing the practice of communicating findings. Detailed preparation and procedure notes guide the teacher through leading a successful inquiry activity, including a suggested rubric for assessing student performance.
Both activities include Big Idea assessment questions that follow the AP® Chemistry Exam free-response question format. In the Big Idea assessment, students predict how changes in acid concentration and the acid-to-conjugate base ratio affect a titration curve’s shape. Students understand that changes in acid concentration and conjugate base increase a solution’s buffering capacity, while changes in the acid-to-conjugate base ratio determine a solution’s pH.
This kit provides the following AP® Chemistry experiences: design a procedure to collect data, analyze data, make predictions about chemical changes, perform a titration, use a pH meter and a buret, and plot a titration curve. The use of a commercial lemonade mix as a buffer helps students make the connection between chemistry and their everyday lives. Materials are sufficient for 30 students working in groups of 3. Digital teacher’s manual, included FREE with kit purchase, is a 12-month eBook license to the Evaluating Lemonade as a Buffer teacher’s manual. You can also access the digital student guide for this kit for free at
AP® is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, these products.
|Citric Acid, 22 g||1||Included|
|Sodium Citrate Dihydrate, 20 g||1||Included|
|0.1 M Sodium Hydroxide, 1 L||2||Included|
|Teacher's Manual and Reproducible Student Guide||1||Included|
|Graduated Cylinders, 50 mL||2||Needed, Not included|
|Beakers, 150 mL||10||Needed, Not included|
|Beakers, 250 mL (or larger for waste)||10||Needed, Not included|
|Volumetric Flask, 500 mL||1||Needed, Not included|
|Bottle, 500 mL||1||Needed, Not included|
|Stir Plates||10||Needed, Not included|
|Stir Bars||10||Needed, Not included|
|Thin-stemmed Funnels||10||Needed, Not included|
|Burets, 50 mL||10||Needed, Not included|
|Buret Clamps||10||Needed, Not included|
|Ring Stands||10||Needed, Not included|
|Wash Bottles of Distilled Water||10||Needed, Not included|
|pH Meters||10||Needed, Not included|
|Distilled Water, 1 L||1||Needed, Not included|
If you are an AP teacher, you go out of your way to help your students perform successfully on the AP Exam. Carolina Investigations® for AP* Chemistry Kits are specifically designed to help you do just that.
Carolina Investigations® for AP Chemistry kits are designed to help AP teachers help their students achieve exceptional results by:
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*AP is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, these products.
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