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Addresses AP Chemistry Big Idea 6 and Learning Objective 6.20. Students evaluate a buffer solution’s buffering capacity and compare the titration curves of a buffer solution and a weak acid. This comparative laboratory exercise can be taught using either a guided or an inquiry activity.
Addresses AP Chemistry Big Idea 6 and Learning Objective 6.20. Students evaluate a buffer solution’s buffering capacity and compare the titration curves of a buffer solution and a weak acid. This comparative laboratory exercise can be taught using either a guided or an inquiry activity. In the guided activity, students measure the pH of a citric acid solution titrated with a strong base and plot the titration curve. Students repeat the procedure with a solution prepared from a commercial lemonade mix, which behaves as a buffer and whose primary ingredient is citric acid. Students compare the 2 titration curves, make observations, and address the differences in the curves.
The inquiry activity allows students to design a procedure to evaluate a commercial lemonade mix’s buffering capacity. It also provides an opportunity for students to present their experimental design and results, reinforcing the practice of communicating findings. Detailed preparation and procedure notes guide the teacher through leading a successful inquiry activity, including a suggested rubric for assessing student performance.
Both activities include Big Idea assessment questions that follow the AP Chemistry exam free-response question format. In the Big Idea assessment, students predict how changes in acid concentration and the acid-to-conjugate base ratio affect a titration curve’s shape. Students understand that changes in acid concentration and conjugate base increase a solution’s buffering capacity, while changes in the acid-to-conjugate base ratio determine a solution’s pH.
This kit provides the following AP Chemistry experiences: design a procedure to collect data, analyze data, make predictions about chemical changes, perform a titration, use a pH meter and a buret, and plot a titration curve. The use of a commercial lemonade mix as a buffer helps students make the connection between chemistry and their everyday lives.
|Lemonade drink mix||Included|
|22 g citric acid||Included|
|20 g Sodium citrate dihydrate||Included|
|2 L 0.1 M Sodium hydroxide||Included|
|Teacher’s Manual and Reproducible Student Guide||Included|
|1 L distilled water||Needed, Not included|
|50-mL graduated cylinder||Needed, Not included|
|150-mL beakers||Needed, Not included|
|250-mL beakers (or larger, to be used as waste containers)||Needed, Not included|
|Stir plates||Needed, Not included|
|Stir bars||Needed, Not included|
|50-mL burets||Needed, Not included|
|Ring stands||Needed, Not included|
|Buret clamps||Needed, Not included|
|Utility clamps||Needed, Not included|
|Wash bottles (filled with distilled water)||Needed, Not included|
|pH meters||Needed, Not included|
If you are an AP teacher, you go out of your way to help your students perform successfully on the AP exam. Carolina Investigations for AP Chemistry Kits are specifically designed to help you do just that.
Carolina Investigations™ for AP* Chemistry Kits are designed to help AP teachers help their students achieve exceptional results by:
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