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Molecules to Organisms

Structure & Function

Structure and function begins at the cellular level and establishes patterns and models for organs, organ systems, and organisms. At the cellular level, genetic information in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules is the blueprint for protein synthesis, which allows cells to function. Groups of functioning cells then act as living organisms to carry out specific tasks. Organs and organ systems work together to form a complex organism.
Engineer a physical model of the circulatory system with the Carolina STEM Challenge Circulatory System kit.

$103.95

Engineer a physical model of a circulatory system with a 2-chambered heart and blood vessels throughout a body.

PE: HS-LS1-2      Related PE: HS-ETSI-2
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Systems and system models
DCI: LS1.A: Structure and Function

$69.95

Use a simple purification process to isolate green fluorescent protein while developing a model for how genetic engineering is used to make recombinant proteins.

PE: HS-LS1-1      Related PE: HS-LS1-3
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Structure and function
DCI: LS1.A: Structure and Function

$49.95

Investigate human subject heart rates, before and after exercise, and Daphnia heart rates, after applying acetylcholine, to provide evidence of feedback mechanisms.

PE: HS-LS1-3      Related PE: HS-LS1-2
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC: Stability and change
DCI: LS1.A: Structure and Function

$238.00

Develop and revise a model for relationships between organ systems through an authentic forensic dissection protocol used on a preserved pig.

PE: HS-LS1-2      Related PE: HS-LS1-4
Time Requirement: 4 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Structure and function
DCI: LS1.A: Structure and Function

Modeling DNA to Protein

COMING SOON

Using manipulatives, model the flow of information through DNA translation and transcription of a region on the beta-hemoglobin gene, then apply the model to the mutation associated with sickle-cell disease and its physiological effects.

PE: HS-LS1-1      Related PE: HS-LS3-2
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models, Obtaining, evaluation, and communicating information     CCC: Patterns
DCI: LS1.A: Structure and Function

Growth & Development

Growth and development are characteristics of living organisms. For organisms to develop, parent cells must pass their genetic information to daughter cells during cell division, either asexually or sexually. Cell division through mitosis and gamete production through meiosis results in cells that can be differentiated into specific cell types, allowing for the complexity and diversity of living organisms.
Investigate tissue regeneration in planaria to build a predictive model for regeneration patterns with Carolina® BioKits: Planaria Regeneration BioKit.

$203.50

Use a model to simulate mitosis, meiosis, and crossing-over in animal cells.

PE: HS-LS1-4      Related PE: HS-LS3-1
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and expanation
DCI: LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Use a model to simulate mitosis, meiosis, and crossing-over in animal cells in Carolina BioKits: Chromosome Simulation kit.

$69.95

Investigate tissue regeneration in planaria to build a predictive model for regeneration patterns based on stem cell locations.

PE: HS-LS1-4      Related PE: HS-LS1-2
Time Requirement: 4 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC: Patterns
DCI: LS1.B: Growth and Development

Matter & Energy Flow

Energy for all living things comes from the sun. Plants convert matter and energy into sugar through photosynthesis. The sugar is used by plants and the animals that eat the plants as fuel for cellular respiration. The flow of matter and energy can be tracked from the cellular level using chemical equations to the ecosystem level using food webs.
Produce a refined model of photosynthesis with Carolina® BioKits: Algae Bead Photosynthesis.

$99.95

Produce a refined model of photosynthesis that includes the role light wavelengths play in the photosynthesis process.

PE: HS-LS1-5      Related PE: HS-LS2-5
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
DCI: LS1.C: Matter and Energy Flow

Identify large hydrocarbons from food nutrient tests and more with Carolina BioKits®: Food Nutrient Analysis kit.

$89.95

Identify large hydrocarbons from food nutrient tests and design an experiment to identify nutrient hydrocarbons in unknown samples.

PE: HS-LS1-6      Related PE: HS-LS1-7
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC: Structure and function
DCI: LS1.C: Matter and Energy Flow

Use experimental evidence to argue that yeast can perform cellular respiration in the presence or absence of oxygen with Carolina BioKits®: Investigating Cellular Respiration with Yeast Beads.

Carolina BioKits®: Investigating Cellular Respiration with Yeast Beads

COMING SOON

Use experimental evidence to argue that yeast can perform cellular respiration in the presence or absence of oxygen in a system.

PE: HS-LS1-7      Related PE: HS-LS2-3
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP:      CCC:
DCI: LS1.C: Matter and Energy Flow

Refine the design of an apparatus that uses enzymes and microbes to produce ethanol with Carolina STEM Challenge®: Biofuels.

$76.55

Refine the design of an apparatus that uses enzymes and microbes to produce ethanol.

PE: HS-LS2-3      Related PE: HS-ETS1-1
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Constructing explanations and designing solutions     CCC:
DCI: ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

Ecosystems

Interdependent Relationships

Within an ecosystem, relationships exist among organisms and the resources of that ecosystem. The kind and amount of resources determine the carrying capacity of populations within the ecosystem. Changes in biotic or abiotic factors can alter resource availability and affect population dynamics.
Conduct an investigation to gather evidence and make a claim regarding taxonomic diversity with Carolina EcoKits®: Climate Patterns and Species Distribution.

$89.95

Conduct an investigation to gather evidence and make a claim regarding taxonomic diversity of protists at different temperatures.

PE: HS-LS2-2      Related PE: HS-LS4-6
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence     CCC: Stability and change
DCI: LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics

Analyze patterns in sample populations to determine conditions that influence algal growth rate with our Carrying Capacity and Algal Blooms kit.

Carrying Capacity and Algal Blooms

COMING SOON

Analyze patterns in sample populations to determine conditions that influence algal growth rate, and then relate these factors to the ecological phenomenon of algal blooms, carrying capacity, and eutrophication.

PE: HS-LS2-1      Related PE: HS-LS2-7
Time Requirement: 4 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence     CCC:
DCI:

Matter & Energy Cycles

As matter cycles through an ecosystem, raw materials are processed through chemical reactions to produce food. Food is consumed, producing waste materials, and waste materials decompose. At all phases energy is transferred and transformed. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are particularly important because most living organisms require both elements. The cycles also have components found in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Create and refine a small-scale model of the carbon cycle in a closed freshwater system with Carolina EcoKits®: Contributors to the Carbon Cycle.

$115.95

Create and refine a small-scale model of the carbon cycle in a closed freshwater system by collecting evidence about plants and animals and their interactions, in daylight and dark environments.

PE: HS-LS2-5      Related PE: HS-LS2-3
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Systems and system models
DCI: LS2.B: Matter and Energy Cycles

Construct a model food chain for a system of microorganisms and more with the Carolina EcoKits®: Food Chains and Energy Flow kit.

$84.75

Construct a model food chain for a system of microorganisms and develop a mathematical model for energy transfer between trophic levels.

PE: HS-LS2-4      Related PE: HS-LS2-5
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Using mathematics and computational thinking     CCC: Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
DCI: LS2.B: Matter and Energy Cycles

Ecosystem Dynamics

All ecosystems exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium with finite resources. When the ecosystem is disturbed through natural or man-made actions, organisms in the ecosystem must adjust to the disruption. Examining ways to restore ecosystems to their original balance is the role of conservation biologists.
Through a simulation card game, develop a model of an unstable ecosystem with the Carolina EcoKits®: Changing Ecosystems kit.

$94.95

Through a simulation card game, develop a model of an unstable ecosystem using evidence of population changes due to habitat changes in a temperate forest.

PE: HS-LS2-6      Related PE: HS-LS2-7
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models     CCC: Stability and change
DCI: LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics

Gather evidence, over time, to argue patterns in the relationships among populations with the Succession in a Hay Infusion kit.

Succession in a Hay Infusion

COMING SOON

Gather evidence, over time, to argue patterns in the relationships among populations within a hay infusion

PE: HS-LS2-6      Related PE: HS-LS2-1
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC:
DCI:

Use a small-scale simulation to collect evidence that microorganisms can be used in the bioremediation of oil spills with the Carolina EcoKits®: Oil Spill Bioremediation kit.

$77.20

Use a small-scale simulation to collect evidence that microorganisms can be used in the bioremediation of oil spills.

PE: HS-LS4-6      Related PE: HS-LS2-7
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP:      CCC:
DCI:

Use sterile technique to identify and differentiate Escherichia coli from other coliforms with the Carolina EcoKits®: Coliform Contamination kit.

$124.45

After collecting various water samples, use sterile technique to identify and differentiate Escherichia coli from other coliforms, then propose design solutions that reduce the environmental impact of human activities.

PE: HS-LS2-7      Related PE: HS-LS4-6
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Constructing explanations and designing solutions     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation
DCI: LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics

Social Interaction & Group Behavior

For a population of organisms to be successful, its offspring must live to reproduce and pass on the group’s pool of genes. Social interactions and group behaviors like colonies and herds, communication techniques, and caste systems are tools organisms use to increase the likelihood of individuals surviving to reproduce.
Evaluate evidence from different insect species that communication and cooperative behaviors can increase the chances of survival with the Group Behavior and Social Insects kit.

$99.95

Evaluate evidence from different insect species that communication and cooperative behaviors can increase the chances of survival.

PE: HS-LS2-8      Related PE: HS-LS4-3
Time Requirement: 4 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence, Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC: Stability and change
DCI: LS2.D: Social Interactions & Group Behavior

Heredity

Inheritance of Traits

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) codes for the structure and function of every cell. That code is transcribed into RNA, ribonucleic acid, and translated into the proteins that form the cell structure and dictate the function of the cell. DNA replication is the mechanism for inheritance of traits.
Use evidence found in DNA fingerprint patterns to argue which suspect committed a crime with the Exploring Electrophoresis Using DNA Evidence kit.

Exploring Electrophoresis Using DNA Evidence

COMING SOON

Use evidence found in DNA fingerprint patterns to argue which suspect committed a crime.

PE: HS-LS3-1      Related PE: HS-LS3-2
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation
DCI: LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Variation of Traits

According to classical Mendelian genetics, parents pass traits to children in an ordered and predictable fashion. When the phenotype and associated genotype of the parents are known, the offspring’s probable genotype can be predicted using Punnett squares. The reverse is also true. If the phenotypes and genotypes of the offspring in a generation are known, parent genotypes can be predicted. If predicted ratios of offspring do not match actual offspring, evidence of genetic mutations may be present.
Investigatethe effect ultraviolet light has on different strains of yeast cells in the DNA Damage: Studying the Impact of UV Light kit.

$106.95

After investigating the effect ultraviolet light has on different strains of yeast cells, students design an experiment to test the effectiveness of different ultraviolet preventatives.

PE: HS-LS3-2      Related PE: HS-LS4-2
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Asking questions and defining problems     CCC:
DCI:

Use statistics to verify the results of crosses between 4 different stocks and develop an explanation for the inheritance patterns observed with the Wisconsin Fast Plants® 72-Hour Monohybrid Genetics Kit.

$79.95

Use statistics to verify the results of crosses between 4 different stocks and develop an explanation for the inheritance patterns observed.

PE: HS-LS3-3      Related PE: HS-LS3-2
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Analyzing and interpreting data     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation
DCI: LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Evolution

Evidence of Common Ancestry

Different lines of evidence such as fossil records, skeletons, homologous structures, and analogous structures provide examples of commonalities and differences between organisms. They can be used to make a claim that organisms share a common ancestor. The development of an evidence-based argument requires students to consider whether to present evidence of homology, analogy, both, or neither. Evidence can help students decipher differences between common ancestry, divergent evolution, and convergent evolution.
Use model DNA nucleotides to complete a DNA analysis with the Genetic Kinship: Following the Globin Genes Through Time kit.

$146.00

Use model DNA nucleotides to complete a DNA analysis for the purposes of establishing a common ancestry and DNA kinship patterns.

PE: HS-LS4-1      Related PE: HS-LS1-1
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Developing and using models, Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information     CCC: Patterns
DCI: LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry

Use external features and DNA evidence to argue evolutionary relationships among a set of organisms with the Carolina BioKits®: Cladograms and Evolution kit.

Carolina BioKits®: Cladograms and Evolution

COMING SOON

Use external features and DNA evidence to argue evolutionary relationships among a set of organisms.

PE: HS-LS4-1      Related PE: HS-LS1-2
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Planning and carrying out investigations     CCC:
DCI:

Natural Selection

All living systems (plants, animals, and prokaryotes) exhibit evolution. Charles Darwin concluded from his observations that natural selection is a cornerstone of evolution. He hypothesized that organisms with traits that give the individuals greater potential to out- compete others for resources have a better chance for survival and reproduction. Selective breeding is an application of natural selection that manipulates the frequency of a trait that already exists in the population. Through selective breeding, individuals with a desired heritable trait breed, enhancing the frequency of the desirable trait within the population.
Using 2 strains of Escherichia coli, perform experiments to develop a model of the real-time evolution of antibiotic resistant E. coli with the Evolution in Real Time: Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance kit.

$118.50

Using 2 strains of Escherichia coli, one sensitive to antibiotics and the other antibiotic resistant, perform experiments to develop a model of the real-time evolution of antibiotic resistant E. coli.

PE: HS-LS4-2      Related PE: HS-LS4-3
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Engaging in argument from evidence     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation
DCI: LS4.B: Natural Selection

Use a simulation of moth populations and environmental changes to develop the concept of genetic equilibrium with the Carolina BioKits®: Natural Selection kit.

$75.00

Use a simulation of moth populations and environmental changes to develop the concept of genetic equilibrium, then confirm or reject it through allele frequency calculations.

PE: HS-LS4-3      Related PE: HS-LS3-3
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Asking questions and defining problems and defining problems     CCC:
DCI:

Adaptation and Biodiversity

Adaptation drives evolution. When a specific adaptation builds up with great enough frequency within a population that the individuals with the adaptation can no longer breed with individuals without the adaptation, speciation has taken place. Where there was one species, now there are two. The biodiversity of the ecosystem is increased. As alterations to ecosystems occur and selective pressures change, organisms adapt or die off. Understanding how variation in traits of offspring, from generation to generation, impacts survival is the basis for establishing the relationship between adaptation and biodiversity.
Use evidence gathered from observations of a fruit fly population over time to argue the occurrence of natural selection with the Natural Selection with Drosophila Kit.

$107.00

Use evidence gathered from observations of a fruit fly population over time to argue the occurrence of natural selection.

PE: HS-LS4-2      Related PE: HS-LS3-3
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Analyzing and interpreting data     CCC:
DCI: LS4.B: Natural Selection

Gather laboratory evidence of bacterial antibiotic sensitivity with the Carolina BioKits®: Antibiotic Sensitivity kit.

$152.75

Gather laboratory evidence of bacterial antibiotic sensitivity and construct an explanation for how antibiotic resistant bacteria evolve.

PE: HS-LS4-4      Related PE: HS-LS4-5
Time Requirement: 3 45-minute Class Periods

SEP: Constructing explanations and designing solutions     CCC: Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation
DCI: LS4.C: Adaptation

Use evidence to support claims for how changes in environmental conditions may result in the extinction of a species with the Carolina EcoKits®: Endangered Species kit.

$78.95

Use evidence to support claims for how changes in environmental conditions may result in the extinction of a species.

PE: HS-LS4-5      Related PE: HS-LS2-7
Time Requirement: 2 45-minute Class Periods

SEP:      CCC:
DCI: