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Carolina LabSheets

  • Introduction to Prokaryotes: Bacteria What are bacteria? In this introductory lab students make smears of bacteria on microscope slides from pure cultures, perform a simple stain, and observe their stained slides under a microscope View »
  • Introduction to Prokaryotes: Archaea In this lab, students are introduced to Halobacterium, a representative of the Archaea, one of the three domains of life (along with Bacteria and Eukarya). View »
  • Introduction to Sterile Technique In this lab, students practice transfer of a bacterial culture using sterile technique. View »
  • Isolating Bacteria from a Mixture How does a microbiologist isolate bacteria from a sample? In this lab students practice streaking a plate to isolate a single species of bacterium from a known mixture. View »
  • Introduction to Algae In this lab, students observe a variety of algae and record basic observations of them. View »
  • Protista: Key to Algae Mixtures What are algae? In this lab students observe a variety of algae and record their characteristics. View »
  • Introduction to Prokaryotes: Cyanobacteria In this lab students observe two examples of cyanobacteria and make a simple comparison to a eukaryotic green alga. View »
  • Bacterial Growth on MacConkey Agar In this lab students culture three bacteria on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar and record the results. View »
  • Vinegar Eels In this lab, students observe vinegar eels. View »
  • Survey of Protista Protists are highly diverse. In this lab students are introduced to this diversity through observing a selection of protists and recording their characteristics. View »
  • Introduction to Planaria In this lab, students examine the anatomy and behavior of the planarian, a simple animal with bilateral symmetry. View »
  • Introduction to Lichens In this lab students observe basic lichen types (crustose, foliose, fruticose and fruticose pendant) and discover that lichens are composite organisms, consisting of fungal and algal components. View »
  • Introduction to Invertebrates In this lab, students study representatives of several invertebrate groups. View »
  • Introduction to Hydra This lab introduces students to Phylum Cnidaria. The activity also serves as an introduction to animals. View »
  • Introduction to Ascomycetes This lab introduces students to the variation found in the fungal phylum Ascomycota. Students examine four representatives: Anthracobia muelleri, Eurotium chevalieri, Schizosaccharomyces octosporus, and Sordaria fimicola. View »
  • Daphnia Heart Rate In this introductory physiology lab, students determine the heart rate of Daphnia magna and then test the effect of changing temperature on the heart rate. View »
  • Constructing a Cladogram with Hydra, Planaria, and Daphnia In this lab students compare the body structure and functions of three invertebrates to that of a vertebrate. They use their data to construct a cladogram. View »
  • Bacterial Motility In this lab, students perform two exercises that investigate microbial motility. One is on a microscopic level, using the “hanging drop” slide preparation method to directly observe motile cells. The second exercise is on a macroscopic level and involves inoculating motility test media. View »
  • Bacterial Hydrolysis of Starch In this lab, students culture two bacteria on potato dextrose agar, which contains starch. When grown on potato dextrose agar, bacteria that can secrete amylase—an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch—create a zone around their colonies in which starch is absent. When the agar is flooded with iodine solution, most of the plate stains dark blue–black, but clear areas are left around colonies that secrete amylase. View »
  • Bacterial Hydrolysis of Lipids In this lab, students culture two species of bacteria on agar medium that contains an emulsion of plant oils and the dye, sprit blue, which forms a complex with the triglycerides of the oils and gives an opaque blue color to the agar. Colonies of bacteria that can secrete lipase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides, develop a light area or “halo” in the surrounding medium, due to the diffusion of lipase into the medium and the resultant breakdown of the oil/spirit blue complex. View »
  • Bacterial Hydrolysis of Casein In this lab, students culture two bacteria on skim milk agar. The protein casein gives milk its white color. Some bacteria secrete protease enzymes that can hydrolyze casein. When these bacteria are grown on skim milk agar a clear area develops around the colonies, indicating that casein has been hydrolyzed into its component amino acids. View »
  • Bacteria: The Indole Test In this lab students perform a differential test to distinguish bacteria based on the production of indole. Bacteria are grown on media containing tryptophan and then treated with Kovac’s reagent. If they possess the enzyme tryptophanase, the bacteria can metabolize tryptophan into indole, pyruvic acid, and ammonia. View »
  • Bacteria: The Citrate Test In this lab students perform a test on two different bacteria to determine whether the organisms can use citric acid as their sole carbon source. The citrate test is often performed as part of the IMViC (Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer, and Citrate) series of tests used to differentiate common species of enteric bacteria. View »
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